Physical Evidence for Atlantis
Biology is the science that deals with the origin, history, characteristics, and habits of plants and animals. Ignatius Donnelly was the first Atlantologist seriously to consider biology as a means of proving the existence of Atlantis. Donnelly made extensive lists to compare the flora and fauna on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean in his 1882 best seller Atlantis: The Antediluvian World. In the September 1970 issue of Atlantis, Atlantis: The Antediluvian World by Ignatius Donnelly. A New And Revised Edition by Egerton Sykes was reviewed.
Human Blood Groups
Blood groups allow human geneticists and physical anthropologists to learn about the biological relationships and history of human populations. It may be possible someday, to trace the migration path of any given group of people.
The first experiments in blood group typing of archaeological materials were done by W.C. Boyd and L.G. Boyd in 1931 using tissue from Egyptian and American Indian mummies. In 1936, P.B. Candela carried out tests on ground samples of bone. A.E. Mourant’s The Distribution of Human Blood Groups published in 1954 reviewed the literature on archaeological blood grouping up to 1953. In 1958, the Natural History Museum of London set up a blood grouping laboratory that was to be used to learn about the biological relationships and history of human populations.
Sykes was very interested in blood type research and in the July 1959 issue of New World Antiquity, wrote Blood Groupings.
The Rhesus negative factor, introduced into Europe thousands of years ago by immigrant peoples, is believed to have a racial origin. A small percentage of rhesus negative people are spread throughout Europe; however, there is a high percentage among the Basques, the Albanians, and Guanches of the Canary or Fortunate Isles.
Plato said that elephants lived in Atlantis. Atlantis apparently possessed a tropical climate that favored the existence of elephants.
In 1799, the frozen bodies of mammoths were found in the tundra wastes of Siberia, in the Berelekh region. The corpses were well-preserved with the flesh unharmed and the stomach contents were well preserved. All indications suggested that there was a sudden, instantaneous extinction about 10,000 years ago, not only confined to the mammoth, but other animals of contemporary ecology, such as the woolly rhinoceros. The phenomena are also manifest in North America, particularly Alaska. Several reasons have been given for the sudden death including both cosmic and terrestrial causes.
Zhirov commented that elephant representations in America are not rare, and the most interesting ones were discovered by Hyatt Verril in 1924 in Panama — the Cocle culture. Many Central American stoneworks depict the Indian elephant. Zhirov also stated that elephants, horses, and camels were ordinary for America even after the end of the Ice Age.
In the Saturday Evening Post of January 16, 1960, Ivan T. Sanderson published an article titled Riddle of the Frozen Giants, which dealt with the question of why and how hundreds of mammoths were killed and frozen in the far north with undigested stomach contents that showed the flora of a warm climate.
In the January 1969 issue of New World Antiquity, Sykes published Elephants in Central America.
In 1970, Dr. Robert Silverberg published Mammoths, Mastodons, and Man, in which he described how the gargantuan skeleton of the mammoth began to emerge as early as 1443, when a thigh bone was found when digging the foundations for a church in Vienna. Other finds were made in 1466, 1564, and 1613 in France and Switzerland. They were mostly regarded as the bones of giants who drowned during the Deluge. Silverberg narrated the first discoveries of the mammoth in Siberia, when the animal began to be recognized as a larger species of the genus elephant. It was eventually recognized that the mammoth and its associated species, the mastodon, had a wide distribution on the American, European, and Asian continents.
Land Bridges and Fish
In Atlantis in July 1963, the article Soviet Scientists Support An Atlantis Theory stated that new facts had become known supporting the hypothesis that land once existed where the North Atlantic is now. Professor Georgi Lingberg of the USSR Academy of Sciences’ Institute of Zoology believed that on the vast stretch of land before the end of the Tertiary Period, there existed a palaeo-Hudson river system linking rivers of the east coast of North America with those of Western Europe in the area of Iceland. He claimed to have established a kinship between the fresh water and migratory fish of North America and Europe, in particular, the grayling, umber, pike, and carp families.
To Atlantologists, geology and geography were key to one of the basic, central questions about the possibility of the existence of Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean: Is it possible that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was above sea level in 10,000 BC?
In January 1959 in Atlantis, in Sykes’ article The Azores As An Atlantean Center, he stated, “If it can be established that the general sea level of the Atlantic Ocean has sunk as much as the drowned valleys along its shores suggest, then the Mid-Atlantic Ridge must once have been above sea level in the shape of a long narrow continent with a central mountain range reaching to some 6,000 feet.”
In June 1961 in New World Antiquity, in the article Lost Continents, Sykes commented, “Continents do vanish from time to time, and the fact that nobody alive has seen this happen does not constitute a valid excuse for assuming that such has never been the case”.
According to Plato, Atlantis sank below the ocean surface contemporary with the end of the Great Ice Age, or 11,000 years ago.
In July 1954, in a Letter To The Editor of Atlantis, Rene Malaise stated that radio carbon dating on both sides of the Atlantic dates the last advance of an ice sheet to have occurred about 11,000 years ago.
In December 1960 in New World Antiquity, Nils Odhner and Rene Malaise wrote On the Last Theory of Ice Ages, in which they stated that crustal movements are no doubt the primary causes of both glaciation and changed directions of sea-currents as well as of meteorological conditions that in turn were instrumental in ending the Ice Age.
In May 1978 in New World Antiquity, Sykes wrote Continental Shelves vs Lost Continents. He stated, “On both sides of the Atlantic, remains of sunken cities are to be found on the Continental Shelves. Their submersion is mainly due to the fact that at the end of the last Ice Age, BC 10,000, the melting ice sheets covering North America and Europe gradually raised the level of the Atlantic by about 150 feet, just enough to enable the North Sea and the Mediterranean to be formed, and for the Lykontian Plain, now the Caribbean, to be submerged, about 3500 BC.”
In the 1940’s, proof for Alfred Wegener’s theory of Continental Drift began to be found. Sonar, developed during World War II, was used to map the Mid-Atlantic ridge. The geology of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge was unusual as the entire ridge seemed to be undergoing constant volcanic activity and the seafloor seemed to be spreading apart. When molten lava hardens, the direction of the Earth’s magnetic field at the time of hardening becomes locked in the lava. In the early 1960’s, it was discovered that the magnetic poles had flipped many times in the last several million years. Measurements to either side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge showed magnetic stripes several miles wide, magnetized in alternating directions. This suggested that lava eruptions from the ridge were creating new seafloor and the seafloor was indeed spreading. By 1965, geologists accepted that the seafloor could spread and the new field of plate tectonics was born. The continents were conceived of as giant plates, moved by seafloor spreading that originated at the mid-ocean ridges.
In the theory of Continental Drift, continents are large granite masses, very different from the rock of the ocean floor. As the seafloor spread from volcanic eruptions on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, the ocean bottom was formed from lava. Geologically speaking, use of the word continent to describe Atlantis is inappropriate. One of many articles on Continental Drift, in the March 1969 issue of Atlantis, Sykes wrote Continental Drift And Atlantis. In the January, 1972, issue of Atlantis, Continental Drift by D.H. and M.P. Tarling was reviewed.
In Atlantis in July 1954, Paul Hoffman wrote The Atlantic and the Theory of Continental Drift in which he tried to illustrate that Alfred Wegener’s theory and Hoerbiger’s Theory were complimentary to each other. Hoffman wrote, “Fitting the Old and the New World together, it will at once be seen, that the landmass that should have filled the Mexican Gulf, just outside the Strait of Gibraltar, forms a missing link in the otherwise roughly corresponding coastal lines of the Americas on the one side and western Europe and Africa on the other. Geology owes an explanation as to whither this land mass is gone. Obviously, it is not to be found above sea-level. Consequently, if the theory of continental drift is to be maintained, we shall have to seek it below... At a certain time, it was left behind by the drifting Americas, and it found its resting place in the middle of the Atlantic until its submergence in the Luna-capture-cataclysm about 11,500 BC. The nowadays islands in the Mexican Gulf and the Caribbean form traces of this break-away, and the myths relating to such a catastrophe find a sound explanation.”
Malaise’s Constriction Theory
In the July and September 1948 issues of Atlantis, in Atlantis: The Atlantic Continent And Its Submersion Part I & II, Malaise discussed that in the Earth’s geological history, the rocks show evidence of tremendous upheavals when great land masses were submerged and others heaved upwards. These changes in the distribution of land and sea would pre-suppose vertical movements in the Earth’s crust or changes in the level of the oceans on a scale not even dreamt of a few years ago. Malaise theorized that there must have been a change in sea-level of 12,000 feet — more than sufficient to bring the Mid-Atlantic Ridge above water. He attributed this change in sea level to the change in temperature of the water on the ocean bottom; the warm bottom water of the Tertiary became icy cold in the Quaternary; thus, cooled the bottom of the marine basins and caused these depressed vaults of the Earth’s crust to shrink and lessen their down pressed curvature. The smoothing out of the ocean bottoms caused the general sea-level to rise. The cold water of the rising oceans caused the borders of the continents to sink.
Meteors, Earth Changes, And Folklore
Research shows that in the period from 15,000 to 10,000 BC, there occurred a sudden change in the conditions of life on our globe that included climate variations, and changes in the configuration of land areas and sea basins. Analysis of peat from the bottom of Lake Michigan indicates that the peat was formed by the trees that grew there 11,200 years ago. In 10,000 BC, the inland sea of North Africa dried up; the Strait of Gibraltar was opened; and the causeway connecting Italy with Tunisia via Malta was broken. There was also the retreat of the Schieren Glaciers; the Allerod Climatic oscillation in Iceland; the Aachen Climatic oscillation; destruction of forests by the Baltic Glaciers; volcanic eruptions in the Atlantic and Mediterranean; change in direction of the Gulf Stream; Niagara Falls was formed; and the Rift Valley was formed.
This last-mentioned geologic feature of the catastrophe, the widening and intensification of the Great Rift, is associated with an ancient ritual. At Baalbek, in the Great Temple, they used to hold an annual ceremony of pouring sea water brought with difficulty from the coast thirty miles away, into a cleft of the northern end of the Rift, to commemorate the fact that the waters of the Deluge finally ran away through this crack in the upper mantle of the Earth.
In 10,000 BC, a meteor named Bal the star struck off Bermuda and left a large crater of about two-thousand miles in diameter, the walls of which effectively sealed off the area lying south of Florida to Puerto Rico; thus allowing the whole of the Caribbean Sea to become dry land known as Lykontia. There were numerous settlers until sometime between 6000 and 4000 BC, when according to the Orphic Argonaut, Poseidon, the God of the Sea Peoples, pierced the protecting wall with his trident in three places and the Atlantic flooded the Lykontian Plain. Refugees went to the mainland, Cuba, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and Jamaica. Two American sources on these disasters include the Popul Vuh and the Books of Chilam Balam. Petroglyphs of a cosmic event were found in Haiti by Descourtilez, 1799-1803, Nau, 1790, Saint Mery, 1800, and Jiminez.
In January 1967 in Atlantis, Sykes wrote Atlantis — The Meteor Impact Theory. Sykes commented that it was essential to realize the nature of the forces that may have been involved in the catastrophe. He wrote, “The amount of energy involved in the sinking of a continent is pretty large by terrestrial if not by cosmic standards. By 10,000 BC, the approximate date of the submersion, the Earth was already in its middle age and no longer possessed that flexibility which had permitted the emergence of the great continents and the building of the mountain chains of past eras. Hence, any form of major occurrence would have to be of external origin as geologists are certain that nothing of an internal nature has occurred since that date. The acceptance of the theory of meteor craters is extremely recent...”
In November 1967 in Atlantis, Sykes published The Sahara Inland Sea. He wrote, “That the Sahara Desert was once an inland sea of considerable dimensions is not only confirmed by classical references but also by the fact that underlying most of it there is a layer of brackish water ranging from 200-500 feet under the soil... The climatic change seems to have occurred fairly recently, say between 3000 and 5000 BC, as the classics contain numerous references to its existence...”
In November 1968 in Atlantis, Sykes wrote The Latvian Crater Problem. He wrote, “The small island of Osel or Saaremaa in the Gulf of Riga is well known because of the group of meteoric craters at the Lake of Sall or Kallijarv, near Arensberg or Kuresaare... There is only one legendary story of a falling star which fits in with this Latvian site and that is about Phaethon, the son of Phoebus-Helios, the Sun God, by Clymene, the famous Lybian beauty. Phaethon tried one day to drive the Chariot of the Sun, but lot control of the wild horses to which it was harnessed, and their passage close to Earth set it on fire, Lybia being parched and Africa ablaze, the heat being so intense that the inhabitants changed their color from white to black. Zeus killed Phaethon with a thunderbolt, and his body fell into the River Eridanus. The naiads of the stream rescued it and Clymene, with the three sisters of Phaethon... wept for it so much that they eventually took root in the ground and became trees. Their tears, hardened by the Sun in his wrath, became lumps of Amber... The finest amber in the world, the honey colored succinite, comes from a short stretch of the Baltic Coast stretching southwest from Riga...”
In April 1971 in Atlantis, Sykes wrote Meteor Strikes And The Hoerbiger Theory in which he listed all of the meteor craters around the world, their associations with Hoerbiger, and related folklore, legends, and myths.
In December 1965 in Atlantis, Sykes wrote Moon Fragments in the Argentine and Chile based on a report in Science signed by William A. Cassidy of the Lamont Observatory, three other Americans, and an Argentinean geologist, Louisa M. Villar. In summary, “A persistent legend in Argentina tells of a giant chunk of iron that fell from the sky in a spectacular fireball. The legend flourished over thousands of years because it was demonstrably true. The evidence lay partly buried in the sandy soil of the northern plains, in a region that was aptly named Campo del Cielo — Field of the Sky. Successive waves of Spanish Conquistadors saw the massive iron block with their own eyes... It is obvious that the mass was a meteorite... the American research team... came to the conclusion that the original meteor was part of a moon that fell on Earth...”
In July 1967 in Atlantis, Georg Hinzpeter wrote, Modifications Caused By Pre-Lunar Anchorages. He wrote, “The serious movements in the terrestrial crust caused by the three phased anchorages of the previous moon, the zone of which extended to thousands of kilometers over the surface, left behind crustal deformations, crevasses, and fractures, many of which are still to be observed in various areas... The fact is that the Moon can be considered as a gigantic electro-magnet that leaves contra-polarization in crevasses that leave corresponding traces. These magnetic traces are still to be noted even today...During these periods there was a bombardment of the Earth with cosmic rays on an intensive scale having marked effects on terrestrial flora and fauna, many forms of life being exterminated and others forced to adapt themselves to the altered circumstances. Geophysical research has shown that vast changes took place in marine life, these sudden developments being connected with changes in the terrestrial magnetic fields...”
The geology of the Atlantic is not simple — different areas have different likelihoods of having been above water. In 1988, current geological theory found it impossible to accept that the entire Atlantic Ocean was once a continent, but geologists have considered the possibility that certain areas of the ocean once were dry land.
In 1912, Pierre Termier, Director of Science of the Geological Chart of France, read a paper indicating that the Atlantic comprised two deep basins or troughs, with a central ridge rising in some places to the surface of the ocean, as in the instance of the Azores. The Dolphin and Challenger Ridge was named after the ships whose soundings in the 19th century were the first to reveal its shape and extent. Termier emphasized in his paper that this region was a great volcanic zone.
In November 1948 in Atlantis, Francis Ashton wrote The Voyage Of The Albatross. Professor Hans Pettersson, well known for his round the world trip on the Albatross completed in 1948, for the purpose of exploring the deep seas, published his findings in Sweden during World War II. Pettersson concluded that a reduction of the Atlantic waters by four-thousand meters would produce three land masses in the center: the first stretched southwards from the land bridge connecting Canada and Britain via Greenland, of which the peaks are now the Azores; the second, a small island centered round what are now St. Paul Islands; and the third and largest stretching as far south as the Falklands, and having Tristan da Cunha as its main peak. Pettersson believed that the center of the Atlantic was above water 15,000 years ago, and at the same time the present Caribbean Sea was an inland lake, while the Mediterranean was separated from the Atlantic by a strip of land over a hundred miles wide.
In 1966, Malaise published A New Deal in Geology or Atlantis a Geological Reality. Sykes reviewed the book in a 1969 issue of Atlantis and commented, "In a way Atlantis has become the battleground between the American concepts of oceanography as exemplified by Dr. Ewing and his associates at Lamont, and the European concepts as exemplified by Dr. Nils Odhner, Dr. Zhirov, Dr. Malaise, and many others. The point at issue is a simple one — The American idea does not permit the existence of Atlantis or for that matter of any marked change in the ocean bed within a long period of time. The European idea, on the contrary, not only allows for the existence of Atlantis but even insists on it... "